The possible role of extensional faults in localizing magmatic activity: a crustal model for the Campanian Volcanic Zone (eastern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy)
Three crustal geological sections of the Campanian Volcanic Zone (Italy) were reconstructed by integrating basin architecture and deep well stratigraphies. In addition, mapping of the fault system and of large-volume ignimbrites was carried out. A linked fault system has been identified, which was responsible for asymmetric subsidence contemporaneous with the eruption of ignimbrites. Late Quaternary extension is characterized by a WNW–ESE stretching axis, NNE–SSW normal faults and reactivation of inherited structures. Structural, stratigraphic and palaeogeographical analyses reveal evidence for up to 750 m of subsidence, which has occurred at a mean rate of up to 4.9 mm a−1 over the past 154 ka. These rates suggest that extensional tectonics was responsible for the regional subsidence. A 6 km deep seismic reflector was associated with a magmatic reservoir underlying Campi Flegrei. By matching the structural and stratigraphic architecture with published geophysical and geochemical data a crustal tectonomagmatic model was constructed that displays high-angle faults that root into a low-angle detachment, which in turn roots into a deep sill-like magma reservoir. This model suggests the possible role of extensional faults in localizing magmatic activity, as faults controlled magma rise from deep to shallow reservoirs and to the surface during ignimbrite eruptions.