Synchronous Last Glacial Maximum across the Anatolian peninsula
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Uludağ is a prominent mountain in northwestern Turkey where glacial deposits have been documented in the Kovuk Valley and the glacial history has been reconstructed based on 31 cosmogenic 10Be exposure ages from glacially transported boulders and bedrock. The results suggest that the Kovuk Glacier began advancing before 26.5±1.6 ka. It reached its maximum extent at 20.3±1.3 ka, followed by a re-advance at 19.3±1.2 ka, both during the global Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) within Marine Isotope Stage 2. The timing of the LGM glaciations in the Kovuk Valley is consistent with the investigated LGM glaciations in other mountains of Anatolia, the Mediterranean and the Alps. Based on the geomorphological ice margin reconstruction and using the accumulation/ablation area ratio (AAR) approach, the equilibrium line altitude (ELA) of the Kovuk LGM glacier was c. 2000 m above sea level for an estimated AAR of 0.67. This indicates a c. 1000 m lowering of the ELA for the LGM compared with the modern ELA estimate. These lines of evidence are consistent with the LGM glaciers that have been documented elsewhere in the Anatolian Mountains.