Melange genesis and ophiolite emplacement related to subduction of the northern margin of the Tauride–Anatolide continent, central and western Turkey
The Tauride–Anatolide continent, stretching for c. 900 km across western and central Turkey, is one of the world's best example of a subducted, exhumed passive margin within a collisional orogen. Twelve widely separated areas were studied and correlated to develop a new plate-tectonic model. A metamorphosed, rifted continental margin of Triassic–Lower Cretaceous age (Tauride–Anatolide platform) is overlain by Upper Cretaceous (Cenomanian-Lower Maastrichtian) pelagic sediments and then by both tectonic melange (subduction complexes) and sedimentary melange (foredeep gravity complexes). The melanges are overthrust by unmetamorphosed ophiolitic rocks, commonly peridotites with swarms of diabase/gabbro dykes, and are underlain by metamorphic soles. New geochemical evidence from basaltic blocks in the melange indicates predominantly subduction influenced, within-plate and mid-ocean ridge-type settings. The dykes cutting the ophiolites were probably intruded during early-stage intra-oceanic arc genesis. The metamorphosed continental margin, melanges and ophiolites in the north (Anatolides) are correlated with unmetamorphosed equivalents in the Taurides further south (e.g. Beyşehir and Lycian nappes).
Oceanic crust of Triassic–Late Cretaceous age formed between the Gondwana-related Tauride–Anatolide continent in the south and the Eurasia-related Sakarya microcontinent in the north. Following Late Triassic–Early Cretaceous passive margin subsidence, the continental margin was covered by Cenomanian-Turonian pelagic carbonates (c. 98–90 Ma). Ophiolites formed in an intra-oceanic subduction zone setting in response to northward subduction, probably within a two-stranded ocean, with the Inner Tauride ocean in the SE and the İzmir–Ankara–Erzincan ocean in the north/NW. Metamorphic soles relate to intra-oceanic subduction (c. 95–90 Ma). Oceanic sedimentary/igneous rocks accreted to the advancing supra-subduction oceanic slab. The Tauride–Anatolide continental margin then underwent diachronous collision with the trench (c. 85 Ma), deeply subducted and metamorphosed at HP/LT (c. 80 Ma). Accretionary, ophiolitic and exhumed HP/LT rocks were gravity reworked into a southward-migrating flexural foredeep and progressively overridden (c. 70–63 Ma). Slices of the upper part of the platform and its margin detached and were thrust southwards as the (Tauride) Lycian and Beyşehir nappes, together with regional-scale ophiolites. The continental margin and melange were simultaneously exhumed during Maastrichtian–Early Paleocene (70–63 Ma) and transgressed by shallow-water sediments, beginning in the Late Maastrichtian in the east (c. 64 Ma) and the Mid?-Late Paleocene (c. 60 Ma) further west. Remnant oceanic crust was consumed during Early Cenozoic time, followed by Mid Eocene (45–40 Ma) diachronous continental collision and a second phase of regional deformation. Rather than being progressive there were two stages of collision: first, Upper Cretaceous ophiolite emplacement driven by continental margin-subduction trench collision, and secondly Eocene collision of the Tauride and Sakarya/Eurasian continents.