Magma mixing and unmixing related mineralization in the Karacaali Magmatic Complex, central Anatolia, Turkey
The calc-alkaline Karacaali Magmatic Complex (KMC), in the Central Anatolian Crystalline Complex, is an example of an Upper Cretaceous post-collisional I-type, plutonic–volcanic association. Volcanic rocks grade from basalt to rhyolite, whilst coeval plutonic rocks range from gabbro to leucogranite. In this paper we document evidence for the occurrence of both mixing and unmixing during the evolution of this igneous complex.
Mixing of mafic and felsic magmas was observed in petrographic properties at microscopic to macroscopic scales and is further supported by mineral chemistry data.
The occurrence of unmixing is evidenced in the Fe and Cu–Mo mineralization hosted in the KMC. The iron mineralization in basaltic-andesitic rocks consists mostly of magnetite. Magnetite has been grouped into four settings: (1) matrix type; (2) vein-filling type; (3) breccia matrix type; and (4) vesicle-filling type. In contrast, Cu–Mo mineralization is related to vertical north–south trending quartz-, quartz-calcite-, and quartz-tourmaline veins crosscutting monzonitic and granitic rocks.
We propose that the intrusion of an oxidized, Fe- and Cu-rich basic magma into a partially crystallized acid magma resulted in partial mixing and may have triggered the abrupt separation of an iron-oxide-rich melt.
Our results highlight the importance of magma mixing and metal unmixing, possibly associated with stress relaxation during post-collisional evolution.