Open-system processes in the differentiation of mafic magma in the Teide–Pico Viejo succession, Tenerife
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Oceanic island basalts are commonly thought to differentiate by fractional crystallization, yet closed-system fractionation models have so far failed to reproduce major and trace element variations observed in mafic lavas from the Teide–Pico Viejo stratovolcano complex on Tenerife. Here, new high-precision plagioclase trace element data are fed into such a fractionation model. The results confirm that fractionation of phenocrysts found in the lavas does not reproduce trace element variations, in particular enrichment of Sr and Zr observed in the Teide–Pico Viejo mafic suite. This enrichment of Sr and Zr is tested by an energy-constrained recharge, assimilation and fractional crystallization (EC-RAFC) model at high T and low ΔT intervals, consistent with previously determined magma storage beneath Tenerife at sub-Moho depths. Published mineral–melt equilibrium relations using the plagioclase anorthite content (0.4 < XAn < 0.8) constrain the temperature during differentiation. Gabbroic xenoliths found in Tenerife lavas are assumed as contaminant. Enrichment of Sr and Zr in the Teide mafic suite is reproduced by this combined assimilation and fractional crystallization model, as assimilation causes higher degrees of enrichment in incompatible trace elements than is possible by crystal fractionation alone. Recycling of plutonic roots may thus have significantly enriched trace elements in the primitive lavas of the Teide–Pico Viejo succession.