Frontier exploration and the North Atlantic Igneous Province: new insights from a 2.6 km offshore volcanic sequence in the NE Faroe–Shetland Basin
The Lagavulin exploration well 217/15-1Z penetrated a c. 2.6 km thick volcanic sequence dominated by extrusive basaltic rocks spanning the Paleocene–Eocene boundary in the NE Faroe–Shetland Basin. The well comprises one of the thickest drilled sequences through the North Atlantic Igneous Province. Integrated analysis of drill cuttings and wireline-log data reveals key volcanic lithofacies: (1) tabular lava flows; (2) compound lava flows; (3) hyaloclastite; (4) volcaniclastic rocks. The volcanic facies reveal two major sub-aqueous to subaerial sequences consistent with lava delta progradation. These sequences are separated by a volcanic hiatus represented by extensive reddened soils, which preceded the re-submergence of the area. Emergence followed by submergence of the first lava delta is interpreted to record an intra-T40 transient uplift event near the Paleocene–Eocene boundary. Basalts from the lower c. 1.3 km have low TiO2 (<1.5 wt%) and low Zr/Y (2–3), with olivine-phyric picrites towards the base (Mg# 70–82; olivine Fo85–91). The hiatus correlates precisely with a change to high-TiO2 (2.5–3.2 wt%), high-Zr/Y (>4) compositions, which dominate the upper sequence. The associated change in lava geochemistry, transient uplift and volcanic hiatus appears consistent with a transient pulse of hot buoyant plume material passing beneath the area.